A value chain identiﬁes the natural ﬂow of an organization’s primary business processes. For example, a retailer’s value chain may consist of purchasing to ware- housing to retail sales. A general ledger value chain may consist of budgeting to commitments to payments. Operational source systems typically produce transactions or snapshots at each step of the value chain. Because each process produces unique metrics at unique time intervals with unique granularity and dimensionality, each process typically spawns at least one atomic fact table.